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Archive for the ‘Linux’ Category

MySQL – Install(5.7) and Upgrade to (8.0.31) in Ubuntu 18.*

Posted by Sriram Sanka on October 31, 2022


#MySQL #Ubuntu 18.04.6 #Install # Upgrade

You can download OS VM Images from either https://www.linuxvmimages.com/ Or https://www.osboxes.org/virtualbox-images/

Installing MySQL in Ubuntu OS is very easy, you just need to follow 3 steps.

Update, Install MySQL CE Server and Configure.

Step 1:

Make sure to get all the updated Package Information before Installing MySQL.

root@osboxes:~# apt update
Hit:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:3 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports InRelease [83.3 kB]
Get:5 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages [2,786 kB]
Get:6 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main i386 Packages [1,558 kB]
Get:7 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [297 kB]
Get:8 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [301 kB]
Get:9 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,468 B]
Get:10 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [8,132 B]
Get:11 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [10.0 kB]
Get:12 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [55.2 kB]
Get:13 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [61.0 kB]
Get:14 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,464 B]
Fetched 5,343 kB in 1min 22s (64.9 kB/s)


Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
259 packages can be upgraded. Run 'apt list --upgradable' to see them.
root@osboxes:~#
root@osboxes:~#

Step 2:

Install MySQL Server by running apt install mysql-server

root@osboxes:~# apt install mysql-server
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
  libaio1 libevent-core-2.1-6 libhtml-template-perl mysql-client-5.7 mysql-client-core-5.7 mysql-common mysql-server-5.7 mysql-server-core-5.7
Suggested packages:
  libipc-sharedcache-perl mailx tinyca
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libaio1 libevent-core-2.1-6 libhtml-template-perl mysql-client-5.7 mysql-client-core-5.7 mysql-common mysql-server mysql-server-5.7 mysql-server-core-5.7
0 upgraded, 9 newly installed, 0 to remove and 259 not upgraded.
Need to get 19.5 MB of archives.
After this operation, 155 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/main amd64 mysql-common all 5.8+1.0.4 [7,308 B]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 libaio1 amd64 0.3.110-5ubuntu0.1 [6,476 B]
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 mysql-client-core-5.7 amd64 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 [6,755 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 mysql-client-5.7 amd64 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 [2,028 kB]
Get:5 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 mysql-server-core-5.7 amd64 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 [7,542 kB]
Get:6 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/main amd64 libevent-core-2.1-6 amd64 2.1.8-stable-4build1 [85.9 kB]
Get:7 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 mysql-server-5.7 amd64 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 [3,006 kB]
Get:8 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/main amd64 libhtml-template-perl all 2.97-1 [59.0 kB]
Get:9 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 mysql-server all 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 [9,944 B]
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-common.
(Reading database ... 132259 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../0-mysql-common_5.8+1.0.4_all.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-common (5.8+1.0.4) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libaio1:amd64.
Preparing to unpack .../1-libaio1_0.3.110-5ubuntu0.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking libaio1:amd64 (0.3.110-5ubuntu0.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-client-core-5.7.
Preparing to unpack .../2-mysql-client-core-5.7_5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-client-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-client-5.7.
Preparing to unpack .../3-mysql-client-5.7_5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-client-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-server-core-5.7.
Preparing to unpack .../4-mysql-server-core-5.7_5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-server-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libevent-core-2.1-6:amd64.
Preparing to unpack .../5-libevent-core-2.1-6_2.1.8-stable-4build1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking libevent-core-2.1-6:amd64 (2.1.8-stable-4build1) ...
Setting up mysql-common (5.8+1.0.4) ...
update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/my.cnf.fallback to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-server-5.7.
(Reading database ... 132427 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../mysql-server-5.7_5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-server-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libhtml-template-perl.
Preparing to unpack .../libhtml-template-perl_2.97-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking libhtml-template-perl (2.97-1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-server.
Preparing to unpack .../mysql-server_5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1_all.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-server (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Setting up libevent-core-2.1-6:amd64 (2.1.8-stable-4build1) ...
Setting up libhtml-template-perl (2.97-1) ...
Setting up libaio1:amd64 (0.3.110-5ubuntu0.1) ...
Setting up mysql-client-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Setting up mysql-server-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Setting up mysql-client-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Setting up mysql-server-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/mysql.cnf to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode
Renaming removed key_buffer and myisam-recover options (if present)
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysql.service → /lib/systemd/system/mysql.service.
Setting up mysql-server (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...#####################################################################################################################################################################...............]
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.27-3ubuntu1.4) ...##############################################################################################################################################################################.....]
Processing triggers for systemd (237-3ubuntu10.52) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.3-2ubuntu0.1) ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-21) ...

Check the MySQL Service Status using systemctl status/start/enable

root@osboxes:~#  systemctl start mysql.service
root@osboxes:~#  systemctl status mysql.service
● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Sun 2022-10-30 09:25:22 EDT; 4min 28s ago
 Main PID: 3072 (mysqld)
    Tasks: 27 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service
           └─3072 /usr/sbin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

Oct 30 09:25:20 osboxes systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Community Server...
Oct 30 09:25:22 osboxes systemd[1]: Started MySQL Community Server.
root@osboxes:~#  systemctl enable mysql.service
Synchronizing state of mysql.service with SysV service script with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install.
Executing: /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install enable mysql

Step 3:

mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security

This program enables you to improve the security of your MySQL installation in the following ways:

  • You can set a password for root accounts.
  • You can remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host.
  • You can remove anonymous-user accounts.
  • You can remove the test database (which by default can be accessed by all users, even anonymous users), and privileges that permit anyone to access databases with names that start with test_.

root@osboxes:~# mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Connecting to MySQL using a blank password.

VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin?

Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: y

There are three levels of password validation policy:

LOW    Length >= 8
MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters
STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary                  file

Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 2
Please set the password for root here.

New password:

Re-enter new password:

Estimated strength of the password: 100
Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

All done!

This step Completes the Installation Part. You can now login and verify.

root@osboxes:~# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> select version();
+-------------------------+
| version()               |
+-------------------------+
| 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE "%version%";
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| Variable_name           | Value                   |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| innodb_version          | 5.7.40                  |
| protocol_version        | 10                      |
| slave_type_conversions  |                         |
| tls_version             | TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2   |
| version                 | 5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1 |
| version_comment         | (Ubuntu)                |
| version_compile_machine | x86_64                  |
| version_compile_os      | Linux                   |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> create database sriram;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> use sriram;
Database changed
mysql> create table sriram_table (id int, name varchar(200));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.82 sec)

mysql> insert into sriram_table values(1,'Sriram');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.41 sec)

mysql>  insert into sriram_table values(2,'Sriram2');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.11 sec)

mysql>  insert into sriram_table values(3,'Sriram3');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.41 sec)

mysql> commit;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)

mysql> select * from sriram_table;
+------+---------+
| id   | name    |
+------+---------+
|    1 | Sriram  |
|    2 | Sriram2 |
|    3 | Sriram3 |
+------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.11 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye

Upgrade Paths

  • Upgrade from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0 is supported. However, upgrade is only supported between General Availability (GA) releases. For MySQL 8.0, it is required that you upgrade from a MySQL 5.7 GA release (5.7.9 or higher). Upgrades from non-GA releases of MySQL 5.7 are not supported.
  • Upgrading to the latest release is recommended before upgrading to the next version. For example, upgrade to the latest MySQL 5.7 release before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.
  • Upgrade that skips versions is not supported. For example, upgrading directly from MySQL 5.6 to 8.0 is not supported.
  • Once a release series reaches General Availability (GA) status, upgrade within the release series (from one GA version to another GA version) is supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.y is supported. (Upgrade involving development-status non-GA releases is not supported.) Skipping a release is also supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.z is supported. MySQL 8.0.11 is the first GA status release within the MySQL 8.0 release series.

Run update and upgrade to get the latest Package information and also all the Other Packages to be updated. This Step Takes a while.

root@osboxes:~# apt-get update
Get:1 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease [88.7 kB]
Hit:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports InRelease [83.3 kB]
Get:5 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [55.2 kB]
Get:6 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [61.0 kB]
Get:7 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,464 B]
Get:8 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [297 kB]
Get:9 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [302 kB]
Get:10 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,468 B]
Get:11 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [8,076 B]
Get:12 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [10.0 kB]
Fetched 999 kB in 40s (24.8 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
root@osboxes:~# apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
The following packages have been kept back:
  linux-generic-hwe-18.04 linux-headers-generic-hwe-18.04 linux-image-generic-hwe-18.04
The following packages will be upgraded:
  apport apport-gtk bash bind9-host binutils binutils-common binutils-x86-64-linux-gnu bluez bluez-cups bluez-obexd busybox-initramfs busybox-static ca-certificates command-not-found command-not-found-data cron cups cups-bsd
  cups-client cups-common cups-core-drivers cups-daemon cups-ipp-utils cups-ppdc cups-server-common dbus dbus-user-session dbus-x11 deja-dup dirmngr distro-info-data dnsmasq-base dnsutils dpkg e2fsprogs firefox firefox-locale-en
  fonts-opensymbol ghostscript ghostscript-x gir1.2-javascriptcoregtk-4.0 gir1.2-notify-0.7 gir1.2-polkit-1.0 gir1.2-webkit2-4.0 gnupg gnupg-l10n gnupg-utils gpg gpg-agent gpg-wks-client gpg-wks-server gpgconf gpgsm gpgv
  gstreamer1.0-gtk3 gstreamer1.0-plugins-good gstreamer1.0-pulseaudio gzip imagemagick imagemagick-6-common imagemagick-6.q16 intel-microcode isc-dhcp-client isc-dhcp-common klibc-utils libasn1-8-heimdal libbind9-160 libbinutils
  libbluetooth3 libc-bin libc6 libc6-dbg libcaca0 libcom-err2 libcups2 libcupscgi1 libcupsimage2 libcupsmime1 libcupsppdc1 libcurl3-gnutls libdbus-1-3 libdns-export1100 libdns1100 libdpkg-perl libevdev2 libexempi3 libexpat1 libext2fs2
  libfreerdp-client2-2 libfreerdp2-2 libfreetype6 libfribidi0 libgcrypt20 libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-bin libglib2.0-data libgmp10 libgnutls30 libgs9 libgs9-common libgssapi3-heimdal libgstreamer-plugins-good1.0-0 libhcrypto4-heimdal
  libheimbase1-heimdal libheimntlm0-heimdal libhttp-daemon-perl libhx509-5-heimdal libicu60 libinput-bin libinput10 libirs160 libisc-export169 libisc169 libisccc160 libisccfg160 libjavascriptcoregtk-4.0-18 libjpeg-turbo8 libkeyutils1
  libklibc libkrb5-26-heimdal libksba8 libldap-2.4-2 libldap-common liblouis-data liblouis14 liblwres160 liblzma5 libmagickcore-6.q16-3 libmagickcore-6.q16-3-extra libmagickwand-6.q16-3 libnetplan0 libnotify-bin libnotify4
  libnss-myhostname libnss-systemd libnss3 libntfs-3g88 libopenexr22 libpam-systemd libpcre3 libperl5.26 libpolkit-agent-1-0 libpolkit-backend-1-0 libpolkit-gobject-1-0 libpoppler-glib8 libpoppler73 libpython2.7 libpython2.7-minimal
  libpython2.7-stdlib libpython3.6 libpython3.6-minimal libpython3.6-stdlib libreoffice-avmedia-backend-gstreamer libreoffice-base-core libreoffice-calc libreoffice-common libreoffice-core libreoffice-draw libreoffice-gnome
  libreoffice-gtk3 libreoffice-impress libreoffice-math libreoffice-ogltrans libreoffice-pdfimport libreoffice-style-breeze libreoffice-style-galaxy libreoffice-style-tango libreoffice-writer libroken18-heimdal libsasl2-2
  libsasl2-modules libsasl2-modules-db libseccomp2 libsensors4 libsepol1 libsmbclient libsnmp-base libsnmp30 libspeex1 libspeexdsp1 libsqlite3-0 libss2 libssl1.0.0 libssl1.1 libsystemd0 libtiff5 libudev1 libwayland-client0
  libwayland-cursor0 libwayland-egl1 libwayland-server0 libwbclient0 libwebkit2gtk-4.0-37 libwind0-heimdal libwinpr2-2 libxml2 libxslt1.1 linux-base linux-firmware locales login multiarch-support netplan.io networkd-dispatcher nplan
  ntfs-3g open-vm-tools open-vm-tools-desktop openssl passwd perl perl-base perl-modules-5.26 policykit-1 poppler-utils python3-apport python3-commandnotfound python3-louis python3-mako python3-pil python3-problem-report
  python3-software-properties python3-uno python3.6 python3.6-minimal rsync rsyslog samba-libs sbsigntool snapd software-properties-common software-properties-gtk systemd systemd-sysv tar tcpdump thunderbird thunderbird-gnome-support
  thunderbird-locale-en thunderbird-locale-en-us tzdata ubuntu-advantage-tools udev ufw uno-libs3 unzip ure wireless-regdb xserver-common xserver-xephyr xserver-xorg-core-hwe-18.04 xserver-xorg-legacy-hwe-18.04 xwayland xxd xz-utils
  zlib1g
256 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
225 standard security updates
Need to get 439 MB of archives.
After this operation, 101 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y

...................
....................
....................
Updating certificates in /etc/ssl/certs...
0 added, 0 removed; done.
Running hooks in /etc/ca-certificates/update.d...
done.
root@osboxes:~#

Download the latest MySQL APT Repository from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/apt/

root@osboxes:~# wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb
--2022-10-30 12:52:21--  https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb
Resolving dev.mysql.com (dev.mysql.com)... 2600:140f:400:19a::2e31, 2600:140f:400:1b2::2e31, 23.214.233.36
Connecting to dev.mysql.com (dev.mysql.com)|2600:140f:400:19a::2e31|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 302 Moved Temporarily
Location: https://repo.mysql.com//mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb [following]
--2022-10-30 12:52:22--  https://repo.mysql.com//mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb
Resolving repo.mysql.com (repo.mysql.com)... 49.44.146.86
Connecting to repo.mysql.com (repo.mysql.com)|49.44.146.86|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 18048 (18K) [application/x-debian-package]
Saving to: ‘mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb’

mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb                           100%[========================================================================================================================================>]  17.62K  --.-KB/s    in 0s

2022-10-30 12:52:25 (101 MB/s) - ‘mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb’ saved [18048/18048]

Now Install the Downloaded APT Repo and update .

root@osboxes:~# dpkg -i mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-apt-config.
(Reading database ... 132603 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack mysql-apt-config_0.8.24-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-apt-config (0.8.24-1) ...
Setting up mysql-apt-config (0.8.24-1) ...
Warning: apt-key should not be used in scripts (called from postinst maintainerscript of the package mysql-apt-config)
OK
root@osboxes:~# apt-get update
Get:1 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:2 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic InRelease [20.0 kB]
Hit:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:5 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports InRelease [83.3 kB]
Get:6 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 Sources [973 B]
Get:7 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-apt-config i386 Packages [567 B]
Get:8 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-apt-config amd64 Packages [567 B]
Get:9 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 i386 Packages [8,533 B]
Get:10 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 Packages [8,528 B]
Get:11 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-tools amd64 Packages [8,196 B]
Get:12 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-tools i386 Packages [8,200 B]
Get:13 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [55.2 kB]
Get:14 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [61.1 kB]
Get:15 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,464 B]
Get:16 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages [2,803 kB]
Get:17 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main i386 Packages [1,558 kB]
Get:18 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [296 kB]
Get:19 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [302 kB]
Get:20 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,468 B]
Get:21 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [8,132 B]
Get:22 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [10.0 kB]
Fetched 5,415 kB in 1min 9s (78.5 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done

Run apt-get install mysql-server to Install the Latest Version

root@osboxes:~# apt-get install mysql-server
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following package was automatically installed and is no longer required:
  libevent-core-2.1-6
Use 'apt autoremove' to remove it.
The following additional packages will be installed:
  libmecab2 mecab-ipadic mecab-ipadic-utf8 mecab-utils mysql-client mysql-common mysql-community-client mysql-community-client-core mysql-community-client-plugins mysql-community-server mysql-community-server-core
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  mysql-client-5.7 mysql-client-core-5.7 mysql-server-5.7 mysql-server-core-5.7
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libmecab2 mecab-ipadic mecab-ipadic-utf8 mecab-utils mysql-client mysql-community-client mysql-community-client-core mysql-community-client-plugins mysql-community-server mysql-community-server-core
The following packages will be upgraded:
  mysql-common mysql-server
2 upgraded, 10 newly installed, 4 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 48.3 MB of archives.
After this operation, 202 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-server amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [68.3 kB]
Get:2 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-common amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [72.4 kB]
Get:3 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-community-client-plugins amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [1,268 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 libmecab2 amd64 0.996-5 [257 kB]
Get:5 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-community-client-core amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [1,938 kB]
Get:6 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 mecab-utils amd64 0.996-5 [4,856 B]
Get:7 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 mecab-ipadic all 2.7.0-20070801+main-1 [12.1 MB]
Get:8 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-community-client amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [3,564 kB]
Get:9 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/universe amd64 mecab-ipadic-utf8 all 2.7.0-20070801+main-1 [3,522 B]
Get:10 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-client amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [68.3 kB]
Get:11 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-community-server-core amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [28.8 MB]
Get:12 http://repo.mysql.com/apt/ubuntu bionic/mysql-8.0 amd64 mysql-community-server amd64 8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04 [79.5 kB]
Fetched 48.3 MB in 1min 8s (713 kB/s)
Preconfiguring packages ...
(Reading database ... 132608 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../mysql-server_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-server (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) over (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
(Reading database ... 132609 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing mysql-server-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/my.cnf.fallback to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode
Removing mysql-client-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Removing mysql-client-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
Removing mysql-server-core-5.7 (5.7.40-0ubuntu0.18.04.1) ...
(Reading database ... 132395 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../00-mysql-common_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-common (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) over (5.8+1.0.4) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-community-client-plugins.
Preparing to unpack .../01-mysql-community-client-plugins_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-community-client-plugins (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-community-client-core.
Preparing to unpack .../02-mysql-community-client-core_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-community-client-core (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-community-client.
Preparing to unpack .../03-mysql-community-client_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-community-client (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-client.
Preparing to unpack .../04-mysql-client_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-client (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libmecab2:amd64.
Preparing to unpack .../05-libmecab2_0.996-5_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking libmecab2:amd64 (0.996-5) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-community-server-core.
Preparing to unpack .../06-mysql-community-server-core_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-community-server-core (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mysql-community-server.
Preparing to unpack .../07-mysql-community-server_8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mysql-community-server (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mecab-utils.
Preparing to unpack .../08-mecab-utils_0.996-5_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking mecab-utils (0.996-5) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mecab-ipadic.
Preparing to unpack .../09-mecab-ipadic_2.7.0-20070801+main-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking mecab-ipadic (2.7.0-20070801+main-1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package mecab-ipadic-utf8.
Preparing to unpack .../10-mecab-ipadic-utf8_2.7.0-20070801+main-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking mecab-ipadic-utf8 (2.7.0-20070801+main-1) ...
Setting up mysql-common (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Installing new version of config file /etc/mysql/conf.d/mysql.cnf ...
Installing new version of config file /etc/mysql/my.cnf.fallback ...
Setting up libmecab2:amd64 (0.996-5) ...
Setting up mysql-community-client-plugins (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Setting up mysql-community-server-core (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Setting up mecab-utils (0.996-5) ...
Setting up mecab-ipadic (2.7.0-20070801+main-1) ...
Compiling IPA dictionary for Mecab.  This takes long time...
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/unk.def ... 40
emitting double-array: 100% |###########################################|
/usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/model.def is not found. skipped.
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Prefix.csv ... 221
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adverb.csv ... 3032
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.demonst.csv ... 120
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Symbol.csv ... 208
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Others.csv ... 2
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.verbal.csv ... 12146
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.adverbal.csv ... 795
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adj.csv ... 27210
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.nai.csv ... 42
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.name.csv ... 34202
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Postp.csv ... 146
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Suffix.csv ... 1393
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Conjunction.csv ... 171
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Postp-col.csv ... 91
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.others.csv ... 151
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Verb.csv ... 130750
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Interjection.csv ... 252
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.csv ... 60477
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.proper.csv ... 27327
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Filler.csv ... 19
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.number.csv ... 42
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adnominal.csv ... 135
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.place.csv ... 72999
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Auxil.csv ... 199
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.adjv.csv ... 3328
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.org.csv ... 16668
emitting double-array: 100% |###########################################|
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/matrix.def ... 1316x1316
emitting matrix      : 100% |###########################################|

done!
update-alternatives: using /var/lib/mecab/dic/ipadic to provide /var/lib/mecab/dic/debian (mecab-dictionary) in auto mode
Setting up mysql-community-client-core (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Setting up mecab-ipadic-utf8 (2.7.0-20070801+main-1) ...
Compiling IPA dictionary for Mecab.  This takes long time...
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/unk.def ... 40
emitting double-array: 100% |###########################################|
/usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/model.def is not found. skipped.
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Prefix.csv ... 221
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adverb.csv ... 3032
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.demonst.csv ... 120
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Symbol.csv ... 208
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Others.csv ... 2
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.verbal.csv ... 12146
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.adverbal.csv ... 795
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adj.csv ... 27210
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.nai.csv ... 42
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.name.csv ... 34202
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Postp.csv ... 146
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Suffix.csv ... 1393
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Conjunction.csv ... 171
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Postp-col.csv ... 91
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.others.csv ... 151
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Verb.csv ... 130750
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Interjection.csv ... 252
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.csv ... 60477
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.proper.csv ... 27327
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Filler.csv ... 19
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.number.csv ... 42
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Adnominal.csv ... 135
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.place.csv ... 72999
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Auxil.csv ... 199
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.adjv.csv ... 3328
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/Noun.org.csv ... 16668
emitting double-array: 100% |###########################################|
reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/matrix.def ... 1316x1316
emitting matrix      : 100% |###########################################|

done!
update-alternatives: using /var/lib/mecab/dic/ipadic-utf8 to provide /var/lib/mecab/dic/debian (mecab-dictionary) in auto mode
Setting up mysql-community-client (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Setting up mysql-client (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Setting up mysql-community-server (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Installing new version of config file /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld ...
Installing new version of config file /etc/mysql/mysql.cnf ...
Installing new version of config file /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysqld.cnf ...
update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/mysql.cnf to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode
Setting up mysql-server (8.0.31-1ubuntu18.04) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.3-2ubuntu0.1) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.27-3ubuntu1.6) ...

With the Above, the Actual Upgrade has been completed and you can now verify the Version Number and your data compatibilities as below.

root@osboxes:~# mysql -v
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 11
Server version: 8.0.31 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Reading history-file /root/.mysql_history
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> exit
Writing history-file /root/.mysql_history
Bye
root@osboxes:~# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 12
Server version: 8.0.31 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sriram             |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> use sriram;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> show tables;
+------------------+
| Tables_in_sriram |
+------------------+
| sriram_table     |
+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from sriram_table;
+------+---------+
| id   | name    |
+------+---------+
|    1 | Sriram  |
|    2 | Sriram2 |
|    3 | Sriram3 |
+------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye

you can also use mysqlcheck for the Incompatibilities, (The mysql_upgrade is now deprecated with this version)

root@osboxes:~# mysqlcheck --user=root -p --all-databases
Enter password:
mysql.columns_priv                                 OK
mysql.component                                    OK
mysql.db                                           OK
mysql.default_roles                                OK
mysql.engine_cost                                  OK
mysql.func                                         OK
mysql.general_log                                  OK
mysql.global_grants                                OK
mysql.gtid_executed                                OK
mysql.help_category                                OK
mysql.help_keyword                                 OK
mysql.help_relation                                OK
mysql.help_topic                                   OK
mysql.innodb_index_stats                           OK
mysql.innodb_table_stats                           OK
mysql.ndb_binlog_index                             OK
mysql.password_history                             OK
mysql.plugin                                       OK
mysql.procs_priv                                   OK
mysql.proxies_priv                                 OK
mysql.replication_asynchronous_connection_failover OK
mysql.replication_asynchronous_connection_failover_managed OK
mysql.replication_group_configuration_version      OK
mysql.replication_group_member_actions             OK
mysql.role_edges                                   OK
mysql.server_cost                                  OK
mysql.servers                                      OK
mysql.slave_master_info                            OK
mysql.slave_relay_log_info                         OK
mysql.slave_worker_info                            OK
mysql.slow_log                                     OK
mysql.tables_priv                                  OK
mysql.time_zone                                    OK
mysql.time_zone_leap_second                        OK
mysql.time_zone_name                               OK
mysql.time_zone_transition                         OK
mysql.time_zone_transition_type                    OK
mysql.user                                         OK
sriram.sriram_table                                OK
sys.sys_config                                     OK






root@osboxes:~# mysqlcheck --user=root -p --all-databases --check-upgrade
Enter password:
mysql.columns_priv                                 Table is already up to date
mysql.component                                    Table is already up to date
mysql.db                                           Table is already up to date
mysql.default_roles                                Table is already up to date
mysql.engine_cost                                  Table is already up to date
mysql.func                                         Table is already up to date
mysql.general_log                                  Table is already up to date
mysql.global_grants                                Table is already up to date
mysql.gtid_executed                                Table is already up to date
mysql.help_category                                Table is already up to date
mysql.help_keyword                                 Table is already up to date
mysql.help_relation                                Table is already up to date
mysql.help_topic                                   Table is already up to date
mysql.innodb_index_stats                           Table is already up to date
mysql.innodb_table_stats                           Table is already up to date
mysql.ndb_binlog_index                             Table is already up to date
mysql.password_history                             Table is already up to date
mysql.plugin                                       Table is already up to date
mysql.procs_priv                                   Table is already up to date
mysql.proxies_priv                                 Table is already up to date
mysql.replication_asynchronous_connection_failover Table is already up to date
mysql.replication_asynchronous_connection_failover_managed Table is already up to date
mysql.replication_group_configuration_version      Table is already up to date
mysql.replication_group_member_actions             Table is already up to date
mysql.role_edges                                   Table is already up to date
mysql.server_cost                                  Table is already up to date
mysql.servers                                      Table is already up to date
mysql.slave_master_info                            Table is already up to date
mysql.slave_relay_log_info                         Table is already up to date
mysql.slave_worker_info                            Table is already up to date
mysql.slow_log                                     Table is already up to date
mysql.tables_priv                                  Table is already up to date
mysql.time_zone                                    Table is already up to date
mysql.time_zone_leap_second                        Table is already up to date
mysql.time_zone_name                               Table is already up to date
mysql.time_zone_transition                         Table is already up to date
mysql.time_zone_transition_type                    Table is already up to date
mysql.user                                         Table is already up to date
sriram.sriram_table                                Table is already up to date
sys.sys_config                                     Table is already up to date
root@osboxes:~#

Hope this is helpful. Have a good day.

-Sriram Sanka

Reference Links

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-apt-repo-quick-guide/en/#apt-repo-fresh-install

https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/apt/

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/updating-apt-repo.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-shell/8.0/en/mysql-shell-utilities-upgrade.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-apt-repo-quick-guide/en/#repo-qg-apt-upgrading

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-apt-repo-quick-guide/en/#repo-qg-apt-repo-manual-setup

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrade-before-you-begin.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading-what-is-upgraded.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrade-prerequisites.html

Posted in Installation, Linux, MySql, oracle, Ubuntu, Upgrade 5.7 to 8, VM Images | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

How-to-Install-Python-with-Anaconda & Connect with Oracle

Posted by Sriram Sanka on October 4, 2022


You can also download Python Installer Executable from https://www.python.org/downloads/windows/

With the Help of CX_ORACLE, we can connect and Execute Oracle Commands .

<strong>import pandas as pd
import pandas.io.sql as psql
import cx_Oracle
import os
os.environ["NLS_LANG"] = "AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8"

dsn_tns = cx_Oracle.makedsn('localhost', 1521, 'xe')
ora_conn = cx_Oracle.connect('sriram','sriram',dsn=dsn_tns)
df1 = psql.read_sql('SELECT * FROM dba_users ', con=ora_conn) 
#for v in df1['USERNAME']:
#    print(v)
print("Running :", df1)
ora_conn.close()</strong>

You can use getpass to hide prompted password at command prompt.

<strong>import pandas as pd
import pandas.io.sql as psql
import cx_Oracle
import getpass
import os
os.environ["NLS_LANG"] = "AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8"
username = input("Enter User Name: ")
userpwd = getpass.getpass(prompt='Password: ', stream=None) 

dsn_tns = cx_Oracle.makedsn('localhost', 1521, 'xe')
ora_conn = cx_Oracle.connect(username,userpwd,dsn=dsn_tns)
df1 = psql.read_sql('SELECT username,account_status FROM dba_users ', con=ora_conn) 
print("Running :", df1)
ora_conn.close()
</strong>

We can use the plot by Installing matplotlib

<strong>import pandas as pd
import pandas.io.sql as psql
import cx_Oracle
import getpass
import os
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
os.environ["NLS_LANG"] = "AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8"
username = input("Enter User Name: ")
userpwd = getpass.getpass(prompt='Password: ', stream=None) 

dsn_tns = cx_Oracle.makedsn('localhost', 1521, 'xe')
ora_conn = cx_Oracle.connect(username,userpwd,dsn=dsn_tns)
df1 = psql.read_sql('SELECT count(*) cnt,account_status FROM dba_users group by account_status', con=ora_conn) 

print(df1)
df1.plot(x="ACCOUNT_STATUS",y=["CNT"])
plt.show()
ora_conn.close()</strong>

<strong>import pandas as pd
import pandas.io.sql as psql
import cx_Oracle
import getpass
import os
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

os.environ["NLS_LANG"] = "AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8"
username = input("Enter User Name: ")
userpwd = getpass.getpass(prompt='Password: ', stream=None) 

dsn_tns = cx_Oracle.makedsn('localhost', 1521, 'xe')
ora_conn = cx_Oracle.connect(username,userpwd,dsn=dsn_tns)
df1 = psql.read_sql('SELECT count(*) cnt,account_status FROM dba_users group by account_status', con=ora_conn) 
print(df1)
df1.plot.bar(x="ACCOUNT_STATUS",y=["CNT"],rot=0)
plt.show()
ora_conn.close()</strong>

Hope you like it !!!

Posted in Installation, Linux, Python, Windows | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Hacking – FATDBA.COM ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ 

Posted by Sriram Sanka on October 4, 2022


#Python #WebScraping

Just Kidding !!! Its not Hacking, this is known as WEB-SCRAPING using the Powerful Python.

What is web scraping?

Web scraping is the process of using bots to extract content and data from a website. Unlike screen scraping, which only copies pixels displayed onscreen, web scraping extracts underlying HTML code and, with it, data stored in a database.

You just need a Browser, Simple & a small Python Code to get the content from the Web. First Lets see the Parts of the Code and Verify.

Step 1 : Install & Load the Python Modules

import time
import os
import pandas as pd
import requests
from lxml import etree
import random
import urllib.request, urllib.error, urllib.parse
import urllib.parse
import sys
import urllib.request
import string

Step 2: Define function to get the Name of the Site/Blog to Make it as a Folder.

def get_host(url,delim):
    parsed_url = urllib.parse.urlparse(url)
    return(parsed_url.netloc.replace(delim, "_"))

Step 3: Define a Function to Get the Blog/Page Title

def findTitle(url,delim):
    webpage = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read()
    title = str(webpage).split('<title>')[1].split('</title>')[0]
    return title.replace(delim, "_").translate(str.maketrans('', '', string.punctuation))

Step 4: Define a Function to Generate a Unique string of a given length

def unq_str(len):
    N = len
    res = ''.join(random.choices(string.ascii_uppercase + string.digits, k=N))
    return(str(res))

Step 5: Write the Main Block to Download the Content from the Site/Blog

def Download_blog(path,url,enc):
    try:   
        response = urllib.request.urlopen(url)
        webContent = response.read().decode(enc)
        os.makedirs(path+'\\'+ str(get_host(url,".")), exist_ok=True)
        n=os.path.join(path+'\\'+ str(get_host(url,".")),findTitle(url," ") +'.html')
        f = open(n, 'w',encoding=enc)
        f.write(webContent)
        f.close
    except:
        n1=os.path.join(path+'\\'+  str(get_host(url,"."))+'Download_Error.log')
        f1 = open(n1, 'w',encoding=enc) 
        f1.write(url)
        f1.close

Step 6: Define Another Function to save the Blog posts into a file & Invoke the Main block to get the Blog Content.

def write_post_url_to_file(blog,path):        
    main_sitemap = blog+'/sitemap.xml'
    r = requests.get(main_sitemap)
    root = etree.fromstring(r.content)
    for sitemap in root:
        children = sitemap.getchildren()
        with open(str(path+'\\'+get_host(blog,".")) +'_blog_links.txt', 'a') as f:
            f.write( f'\n{children[0].text}')
    col_name = ['url']
    df_url = pd.read_csv(str(path+'\\'+get_host(blog,".")) +'_blog_links.txt', names=col_name)
    for row in df_url.url:
        print(row)
        Download_blog(path,row,'UTF-8')
        
write_post_url_to_file("https://fatdba.com","c:\\Users\\Dell\\Downloads\\blogs\\")


This will create a file with links and folder with blog name to store all the content/Posts Data.

Sample Output as follows

BOOM !!!

For more interesting posts you can follow me @ Twitter – TheRamOraDBA & linkedin-ramoradba

Posted in download_blogs, Linux, Python, WebScraping, Windows | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Install MySQL 5.7 Community Server Using RPM Bundle- CENTOS 7

Posted by Sriram Sanka on October 2, 2022


To Install MySQL 5.7 we have To options.

  1. Add the Yum Repository and Install using Yum
  2. Download and Ship the Bundle/RPM and its dependencies to the Server and Install as RPM /Yum Local Install. i.e. either using yum Or rpm -ivh <RPM_NAME>

You can Download the RPM Or bundle Tar file from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/

https://cdn.mysql.com/archives/mysql-5.7/mysql-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar – For 5.7

https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/MySQL-8.0/mysql-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar for 8.0

Few Useful links to Download your desired Version.

https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/

https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/community/

wget https://cdn.mysql.com/archives/mysql-5.7/mysql-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar

Install the Downloaded Packages/RPM Using Local-Install Option.

yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* mysql-5.*­
[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* mysql-5.*­
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Examining mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Skipping: mysql-5.*­, filename does not end in .rpm.
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.68-1.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be installed
---> Package mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be installed
---> Package mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be obsoleting
---> Package mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be obsoleting
---> Package mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                                      Arch                                    Version                                         Repository                                                                        Size
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 mysql-community-client                                       x86_64                                  5.7.9-1.el7                                     /mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                       109 M
 mysql-community-common                                       x86_64                                  5.7.9-1.el7                                     /mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                       2.4 M
 mysql-community-libs                                         x86_64                                  5.7.9-1.el7                                     /mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                         9.8 M
     replacing  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.68-1.el7
 mysql-community-libs-compat                                  x86_64                                  5.7.9-1.el7                                     /mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                  9.2 M
     replacing  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.68-1.el7
 mysql-community-server                                       x86_64                                  5.7.9-1.el7                                     /mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                       649 M

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Install  5 Packages

Total size: 779 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 1/6
  Installing : mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                   2/6
  Installing : mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 3/6
  Installing : mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 4/6
  Installing : mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                            5/6
  Erasing    : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.68-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                        6/6
  Verifying  : mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 1/6
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                            2/6
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                   3/6
  Verifying  : mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 4/6
  Verifying  : mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 5/6
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.68-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                        6/6

Installed:
  mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7   mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7   mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7   mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7   mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7

Replaced:
  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.68-1.el7

Complete!
Enable MySQL Service using "service mysqld start"

Get the Temporary root password from /var/log/mysqld.log.

You can either change the Password using ALTER USER Or by Running Secure Installation option. i.e. mysql_secure_installation

[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root:
Error: Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)
[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root:

The existing password for the user account root has expired. Please set a new password.

New password:

Re-enter new password:
The 'validate_password' plugin is installed on the server.
The subsequent steps will run with the existing configuration
of the plugin.
Using existing password for root.

Estimated strength of the password: 100
Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : n

 ... skipping.
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

All done!

You can Check the Installed Version By running the following

mysql> create database sriram;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> use sriram;
Database changed
mysql> create table sriram_table (id int, name varchar(200));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.07 sec)

mysql> insert into sriram_table values(1,'Sriram');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> insert into sriram_table values(2,'Sriram2');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.03 sec)

mysql> insert into sriram_table values(3,'Sriram3');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> commit;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from sriram_table;
+------+---------+
| id   | name    |
+------+---------+
|    1 | Sriram  |
|    2 | Sriram2 |
|    3 | Sriram3 |
+------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

You can run mysql_upgrade to see the information on update is needed .

mysql_upgrade saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped.

In Our Next Post we See How to Upgrade this to the Latest Using RPM Upgrade Or Using YUM .

References :

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/installing.html

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/installing.html

Hope this is useful, Happy Reading.

Posted in Installation, Linux, MySql | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Upgrade MySQL Server from 5.7 to 8 CentOS 7 Linux

Posted by Sriram Sanka on October 2, 2022


Quote from Mysql Website Upgrade Paths

  • Upgrade from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0 is supported. However, upgrade is only supported between General Availability (GA) releases. For MySQL 8.0, it is required that you upgrade from a MySQL 5.7 GA release (5.7.9 or higher). Upgrades from non-GA releases of MySQL 5.7 are not supported.
  • Upgrading to the latest release is recommended before upgrading to the next version. For example, upgrade to the latest MySQL 5.7 release before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.
  • Upgrade that skips versions is not supported. For example, upgrading directly from MySQL 5.6 to 8.0 is not supported.
  • Once a release series reaches General Availability (GA) status, upgrade within the release series (from one GA version to another GA version) is supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.y is supported. (Upgrade involving development-status non-GA releases is not supported.) Skipping a release is also supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.z is supported. MySQL 8.0.11 is the first GA status release within the MySQL 8.0 release series.

Reference: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrade-paths.html

Download the Required RPM and place them in the Server.

wget https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/MySQL-8.0/mysql-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar

Take the Backup of all the Databases and stop the MySQL Service.

Run the Following from Local Directory using yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*

yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*
[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Examining mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm as an update to mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Examining mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm as an update to mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Examining mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed
Examining mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm as an update to mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Examining mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm as an update to mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Examining mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64
Marking mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64.rpm as an update to mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be an update
---> Package mysql-community-client-plugins.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be installed
---> Package mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be an update
---> Package mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be an update
---> Package mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be an update
---> Package mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.7.9-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be an update
---> Package mysql-community-server-debug.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                                       Arch                                  Version                                        Repository                                                                          Size
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 mysql-community-client-plugins                                x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                 14 M
 mysql-community-server-debug                                  x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                  115 M
Updating:
 mysql-community-client                                        x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                         71 M
 mysql-community-common                                        x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                        9.9 M
 mysql-community-libs                                          x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                          7.6 M
 mysql-community-libs-compat                                   x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                   3.7 M
 mysql-community-server                                        x86_64                                8.0.30-1.el7                                   /mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                        241 M

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages
Upgrade  5 Packages

Total size: 462 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                       1/12
  Updating   : mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               2/12
  Updating   : mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 3/12
  Updating   : mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               4/12
  Updating   : mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               5/12
  Installing : mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                         6/12
  Updating   : mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                          7/12
  Cleanup    : mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                8/12
  Cleanup    : mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                9/12
  Cleanup    : mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                          10/12
  Cleanup    : mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 11/12
  Cleanup    : mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               12/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-common-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               1/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-client-plugins-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                       2/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 3/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-client-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               4/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                          5/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-server-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               6/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-server-debug-8.0.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                         7/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-client-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                8/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                  9/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-server-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               10/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-common-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                               11/12
  Verifying  : mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.9-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                          12/12

Installed:
  mysql-community-client-plugins.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7                                                                   mysql-community-server-debug.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7

Updated:
  mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7  mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7  mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7  mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7  mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:8.0.30-1.el7

Complete!

This completes the Upgrade from 5.7 to 8.0(Or Latest) Start the Service again and verify.

[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# service mysqld start
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl start mysqld.service
[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# service mysqld status
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl status mysqld.service
● mysqld.service - MySQL Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Sun 2022-10-02 03:54:08 EDT; 4s ago
     Docs: man:mysqld(8)
           http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
  Process: 21468 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/mysqld_pre_systemd (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 21502 (mysqld)
   Status: "Server is operational"
    Tasks: 39
   CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service
           └─21502 /usr/sbin/mysqld

Oct 02 03:53:16 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server...
Oct 02 03:54:08 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server.
Note You can also use rpm -Uvh *.rpm to upgrade the Version.

Connect to the Database and verify if there are any errors.

[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# mysql -uroot -p************
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 11
Server version: 8.0.30 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sriram             |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> use sriram;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> show tables;
+------------------+
| Tables_in_sriram |
+------------------+
| sriram_table     |
+------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> select * from sriram_table;
+------+---------+
| id   | name    |
+------+---------+
|    1 | Sriram  |
|    2 | Sriram2 |
|    3 | Sriram3 |
+------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> show variables like '%version%';
+--------------------------+------------------------------+
| Variable_name            | Value                        |
+--------------------------+------------------------------+
| admin_tls_version        | TLSv1.2                      |
| immediate_server_version | 999999                       |
| innodb_version           | 8.0.30                       |
| original_server_version  | 999999                       |
| protocol_version         | 10                           |
| replica_type_conversions |                              |
| slave_type_conversions   |                              |
| tls_version              | TLSv1.2                      |
| version                  | 8.0.30                       |
| version_comment          | MySQL Community Server - GPL |
| version_compile_machine  | x86_64                       |
| version_compile_os       | Linux                        |
| version_compile_zlib     | 1.2.12                       |
+--------------------------+------------------------------+
13 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT VERSION();
+-----------+
| VERSION() |
+-----------+
| 8.0.30    |
+-----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

Since Mysql_upgrade is deprecated and unneeded in Version 8.0.16 and later, you can run mysql_check if needed.

[root@localhost mysql_binaries]# mysql_upgrade -uroot -p
The mysql_upgrade client is now deprecated. The actions executed by the upgrade client are now done by the server.
To upgrade, please start the new MySQL binary with the older data directory. Repairing user tables is done automatically. Restart is not required after upgrade.
The upgrade process automatically starts on running a new MySQL binary with an older data directory. To avoid accidental upgrades, please use the --upgrade=NONE option with the MySQL binary. The option --upgrade=FORCE is also provided to run the server upgrade sequence on demand.
It may be possible that the server upgrade fails due to a number of reasons. In that case, the upgrade sequence will run again during the next MySQL server start. If the server upgrade fails repeatedly, the server can be started with the --upgrade=MINIMAL option to start the server without executing the upgrade sequence, thus allowing users to manually rectify the problem.

Option 2: Follow the Below steps to Complete the Upgrade Steps

Take a backup of all the Databases & Parameter /Variable Values assigned.

Stop the Service.

Remove the Installed Old Version RPM by running rpm -qa mysql* and rpm -e <RPM_LIST>

Install the Latest Version

Restore the Backup from above

Add and Apply variable as before as supported

Conclusion : We have successfully completed the MySQL Community Server Version Upgrade on a standalone Server from 5.7 to 8.0.30

Posted in Installation, Linux, MySql, Upgrade, Upgrade 5.7 to 8 | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Docker Part 1 – Install Docker CE and Docker Compose in Oracle Linux Server 8.6 – OCI-IAAS

Posted by Sriram Sanka on September 29, 2022


In this Post, lets see how to Install Docker CE . I am using Oracle Linux Server 8.6 (Free Instance Offered by Oracle Cloud) .

Docker lets you build, test, and deploy applications quickly, Docker is a software platform that allows you to build, test, and deploy applications quickly. Docker packages software into standardized units called containers that have everything the software needs to run including libraries, system tools, code, and runtime. Using Docker, you can quickly deploy and scale applications into any environment and know your code will run.

Docker Compose is a tool that was developed to help define and share multi-container applications. With Compose, we can create a YAML file to define the services and with a single command, can spin everything up or tear it all down.

The big advantage of using Compose is you can define your application stack in a file, keep it at the root of your project repo (it’s now version controlled), and easily enable someone else to contribute to your project. Someone would only need to clone your repo and start the compose app

Note : If there is no repo available in your OS, try adding EPEL repo and Try again.

[root@certbot conf.d]# dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
Adding repo from: https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

Once the Repo is Added, we are good to go …..

run this command “dnf install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io”

[root@certbot conf.d]# dnf install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:57 ago on Wed 21 Sep 2022 08:05:23 PM GMT.
Dependencies resolved.
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                                     Architecture                             Version                                                                      Repository                                           Size
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 containerd.io                                               x86_64                                   1.6.8-3.1.el8                                                                docker-ce-stable                                     33 M
 docker-ce                                                   x86_64                                   3:20.10.18-3.el8                                                             docker-ce-stable                                     21 M
 docker-ce-cli                                               x86_64                                   1:20.10.18-3.el8                                                             docker-ce-stable                                     30 M
Installing dependencies:
 container-selinux                                           noarch                                   2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9                                    ol8_appstream                                        59 k
 docker-ce-rootless-extras                                   x86_64                                   20.10.18-3.el8                                                               docker-ce-stable                                    4.6 M
 fuse-common                                                 x86_64                                   3.3.0-15.0.2.el8                                                             ol8_baseos_latest                                    22 k
 fuse-overlayfs                                              x86_64                                   1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9                                          ol8_appstream                                        73 k
 fuse3                                                       x86_64                                   3.3.0-15.0.2.el8                                                             ol8_baseos_latest                                    55 k
 fuse3-libs                                                  x86_64                                   3.3.0-15.0.2.el8                                                             ol8_baseos_latest                                    95 k
 libcgroup                                                   x86_64                                   0.41-19.el8                                                                  ol8_baseos_latest                                    70 k
 libslirp                                                    x86_64                                   4.4.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9                                        ol8_appstream                                        70 k
 slirp4netns                                                 x86_64                                   1.2.0-2.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9                                        ol8_appstream                                        54 k
Installing weak dependencies:
 docker-scan-plugin                                          x86_64                                   0.17.0-3.el8                                                                 docker-ce-stable                                    3.8 M
Enabling module streams:
 container-tools                                                                                      ol8

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
Install  13 Packages

Total download size: 92 M
Installed size: 365 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/13): docker-ce-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                                   12 MB/s |  21 MB     00:01
(2/13): docker-ce-rootless-extras-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                  8.1 MB/s | 4.6 MB     00:00
(3/13): docker-scan-plugin-0.17.0-3.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                           9.5 MB/s | 3.8 MB     00:00
(4/13): docker-ce-cli-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                               10 MB/s |  30 MB     00:02
(5/13): fuse-common-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                               78 kB/s |  22 kB     00:00
(6/13): fuse3-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                                    650 kB/s |  55 kB     00:00
(7/13): fuse3-libs-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                               7.8 MB/s |  95 kB     00:00
(8/13): container-selinux-2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch.rpm                                                                                                                                  11 MB/s |  59 kB     00:00
(9/13): fuse-overlayfs-1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                         10 MB/s |  73 kB     00:00
(10/13): containerd.io-1.6.8-3.1.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                              9.9 MB/s |  33 MB     00:03
(11/13): libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                                    206 kB/s |  70 kB     00:00
(12/13): libslirp-4.4.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                           219 kB/s |  70 kB     00:00
(13/13): slirp4netns-1.2.0-2.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                        2.2 MB/s |  54 kB     00:00
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                                                                                         27 MB/s |  92 MB     00:03
Docker CE Stable - x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                     85 kB/s | 1.6 kB     00:00
Importing GPG key 0x621E9F35:
 Userid     : "Docker Release (CE rpm) <docker@docker.com>"
 Fingerprint: 060A 61C5 1B55 8A7F 742B 77AA C52F EB6B 621E 9F35
 From       : https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/gpg
Is this ok [y/N]: Y
Key imported successfully
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1/1
  Installing       : docker-scan-plugin-0.17.0-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                             1/13
  Running scriptlet: docker-scan-plugin-0.17.0-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                             1/13
  Installing       : docker-ce-cli-1:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                              2/13
  Running scriptlet: docker-ce-cli-1:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                              2/13
  Running scriptlet: container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch                                                                                                                                                 3/13
  Installing       : container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch                                                                                                                                                 3/13
  Running scriptlet: container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch                                                                                                                                                 3/13
  Installing       : fuse3-libs-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 4/13
  Running scriptlet: fuse3-libs-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 4/13
  Installing       : containerd.io-1.6.8-3.1.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 5/13
  Running scriptlet: containerd.io-1.6.8-3.1.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 5/13
  Installing       : libslirp-4.4.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                              6/13
  Installing       : slirp4netns-1.2.0-2.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                           7/13
  Running scriptlet: libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                       8/13
  Installing       : libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                       8/13
  Running scriptlet: libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                       8/13
  Installing       : fuse-common-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                9/13
  Installing       : fuse3-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                     10/13
  Installing       : fuse-overlayfs-1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                         11/13
  Running scriptlet: fuse-overlayfs-1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                         11/13
  Installing       : docker-ce-rootless-extras-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                   12/13
  Running scriptlet: docker-ce-rootless-extras-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                   12/13
  Installing       : docker-ce-3:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 13/13
  Running scriptlet: docker-ce-3:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 13/13
  Running scriptlet: container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch                                                                                                                                                13/13
  Running scriptlet: docker-ce-3:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 13/13
  Verifying        : containerd.io-1.6.8-3.1.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 1/13
  Verifying        : docker-ce-3:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                  2/13
  Verifying        : docker-ce-cli-1:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                              3/13
  Verifying        : docker-ce-rootless-extras-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                    4/13
  Verifying        : docker-scan-plugin-0.17.0-3.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                             5/13
  Verifying        : fuse-common-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                6/13
  Verifying        : fuse3-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                      7/13
  Verifying        : fuse3-libs-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                 8/13
  Verifying        : libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                                       9/13
  Verifying        : container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch                                                                                                                                                10/13
  Verifying        : fuse-overlayfs-1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                         11/13
  Verifying        : libslirp-4.4.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                             12/13
  Verifying        : slirp4netns-1.2.0-2.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64                                                                                                                                                          13/13

Installed:
  container-selinux-2:2.188.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.noarch          containerd.io-1.6.8-3.1.el8.x86_64              docker-ce-3:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64            docker-ce-cli-1:20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64
  docker-ce-rootless-extras-20.10.18-3.el8.x86_64                             docker-scan-plugin-0.17.0-3.el8.x86_64          fuse-common-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64          fuse-overlayfs-1.9-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64
  fuse3-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64                                               fuse3-libs-3.3.0-15.0.2.el8.x86_64              libcgroup-0.41-19.el8.x86_64                 libslirp-4.4.0-1.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64
  slirp4netns-1.2.0-2.module+el8.6.0+20721+d8d917a9.x86_64

Complete!

Enable and Start the docker Service

[root@certbot conf.d]# systemctl enable docker
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/docker.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service.
[root@certbot conf.d]# systemctl start docker

Command “Docker PS” shows the running dockers.

[root@certbot conf.d]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES

Lets Install Docker Compose as follows

[root@certbot conf.d]# curl -L "https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.23.2/docker-compose-$(uname -s)-$(uname -m)" -o docker-compose
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0
100 11.2M  100 11.2M    0     0  44.9M      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 44.9M
[root@certbot conf.d]# mv docker-compose /usr/local/bin && sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
[root@certbot conf.d]# docker-compose version
docker-compose version 1.23.2, build 1110ad01
docker-py version: 3.6.0
CPython version: 3.6.7
OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.1.0f  25 May 2017
[root@certbot conf.d]#
Add user to docker group (if not already added)
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
2. create a symbolic link to /usr/bin using the following command
$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/docker-compose /usr/bin/docker-compose
3. Restart docker service
$ sudo service docker restart

Lets see the Available Commands with Docker help, We can discuss more on these commands in the Next Part

See 'docker --help'.

Usage:  docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND

A self-sufficient runtime for containers

Options:
      --config string      Location of client config files (default "/root/.docker")
  -c, --context string     Name of the context to use to connect to the daemon (overrides DOCKER_HOST env var and default context set with "docker context use")
  -D, --debug              Enable debug mode
  -H, --host list          Daemon socket(s) to connect to
  -l, --log-level string   Set the logging level ("debug"|"info"|"warn"|"error"|"fatal") (default "info")
      --tls                Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert string   Trust certs signed only by this CA (default "/root/.docker/ca.pem")
      --tlscert string     Path to TLS certificate file (default "/root/.docker/cert.pem")
      --tlskey string      Path to TLS key file (default "/root/.docker/key.pem")
      --tlsverify          Use TLS and verify the remote
  -v, --version            Print version information and quit

Management Commands:
  app*        Docker App (Docker Inc., v0.9.1-beta3)
  builder     Manage builds
  buildx*     Docker Buildx (Docker Inc., v0.7.1-docker)
  config      Manage Docker configs
  container   Manage containers
  context     Manage contexts
  image       Manage images
  manifest    Manage Docker image manifests and manifest lists
  network     Manage networks
  node        Manage Swarm nodes
  plugin      Manage plugins
  scan*       Docker Scan (Docker Inc., v0.12.0)
  secret      Manage Docker secrets
  service     Manage services
  stack       Manage Docker stacks
  swarm       Manage Swarm
  system      Manage Docker
  trust       Manage trust on Docker images
  volume      Manage volumes

Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  events      Get real time events from the server
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  history     Show the history of an image
  images      List images
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  info        Display system-wide information
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  login       Log in to a Docker registry
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Run 'docker COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

To get more help with docker, check out our guides at https://docs.docker.com/go/guides/

Posted in DevOps, Docker, Docker CE, Docker Compose, Linux | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Install & Configure SSL for Apache-Nginx using Lets Encrypt-CertBot.

Posted by Sriram Sanka on September 28, 2022


One can Install Apache and Nginx using YUM Or DNF in the Selected Unix flavor whereas by default it is a non-secure sub-domain when you access.

Lets encrypt offers free SSL which can be configured to get the SSL for your domain irrespective of Private Or Public Domains. In case of Private Domains , you just need to add a text Entry to Pass the Validations.

For this I am using Oracle Cloud Instance(Always Free).

Change the Host Name using hostnamectl as below

[root@certbot ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname certbot.ramoradba.com
[root@certbot ~]# hostname

As its the Initial Login after Instance provision , run the yum update and Install Apache and/or Nginx as per your choice.

Run Yum Update and make sure everything updated without any issues.

Install Apache-httpd using yum repo.

Try Access the IP/Hostname to see the Installed Apache Default Page.

Install Nginx using Yum

Try to Access Nginx from the Browser

Enable EPEL Repo to Configure Snap and Certbot

Enable the Socket and run the below to Install certbot ,

systemctl enable --now snapd.socket
ln -s /var/lib/snapd/snap /snap
snap install certbot --classic

Restart your session to get the Certbot ,You can Configure SSL for Nginx Or Apache as below, Add an Entry in you domain controller for your IP matching with the Host Name Configured.

Adding Domain Entry for the HostName

You can Either Configure SSL and Install Or Choose the certonly Option to Get the Certificates only, you can configure your SSL.conf as per your webserver configuration
Also In case , your System is not internet facing, You can choose the Preferred Challenges as either http or DNS You can review the Supported Challenged here https://letsencrypt.org/docs/challenge-types/

certbot --nginx -d <subdomain>.ramoradba.com
certbot --apache -d <subdomain>.ramoradba.com

Make Sure you have a Virtual_Host entry available with the domain you chose., Otherwise it will fail.

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName certbot.ramoradba.com
    ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>
certbot --apache -d certbot.ramoradba.com

Reload your browser session to see the Installed Certificate .

Apache with SSL Configured

Thanks for your visit, Hope you like it.

Posted in Apache, Installation, Linux, Nginx, Security, ssl | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Install MySQL 8 Community Server (mysql-community-server) on Azure VM(IAAS) Linux 8 CentOS

Posted by Sriram Sanka on June 11, 2021


Download and Add MySQL Yum Repository.

wget https://repo.mysql.com//mysql80-community-release-el8-1.noarch.rpm

Install the downloaded release package.

yum localinstall mysql80-community-release-el8-1.noarch.rpm

You can check that the MySQL Yum repository has been successfully added by the following command (If Yum Is not available, you can use dnf , instead.)

yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.-community."

Installing MySQL

Linux 8 includes a MySQL module that is enabled by default., Disable the Default Module to avoid following Error.

yum -y install mysql-community-server

yum module disable mysql

yum install mysql-community-server

Start and Enable the Server

Get the temp Password before Secure Configurations.

Continue with the Options and change the Password.

Posted in Installation, Linux, MySql | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

How to Add Swap Memory using a file

Posted by Sriram Sanka on December 22, 2018


 

Swap space in Linux is used when the amount of physical memory (RAM) is full. If the system needs more memory resources and the RAM is full, inactive pages in memory are moved to the swap space.

Swap space can be a dedicated swap partition (recommended), a swap file, or a combination of swap partitions and swap files.

We can Create Swap file and make use of it as described below .

Step 1: Create a file with required size

To create the file we need to use dd command as root user .

 

I am adding 64G of Swap to my server so the count is 67108864 (1024 * 1024 * 64) 

dd if=/dev/zero of=/u03/extra_swap bs=1024 count=67108864

 

Step 2: Change the file Permission using

chmod 0600 /u03/extra_swap

Step 3 : Set Up linux Swap Area.

[root@idc ~]# mkswap /u03/extra_swap


Step 4 :Execute the Following To enable the swap file immediately, You can Check the Added swap using free -g Command .

swapon /u03/extra_swap


Step 5: Add an Entry in /etc/fstab to Make this Swap file Enabled at boot Time

/u03/extra_swap swap swap defaults 0 0

We can use swapon or /proc/swap to Get the Swap info.




 

 

 

Posted in Linux | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
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